Nevertheless, the automatic, involuntary expression of many emotions is a key feature of the biology and social life of our species, and their presence provides powerful evidence that ancestral humans spent a large portion of their time with close cooperators, as opposed to antagonists and competitors. According to the evolutionary theory of emotion, people’s emotions exist because they serve an adaptive role. They are adaptations that have arisen in response to the adaptive problem of mechanism orchestration (Tooby & Cosmides, 1990a; Tooby, 1985). (7) Specialized inference systems are activated: Information about a lion's trajectory or eye direction might be fed into systems for inferring whether the lion saw you. In addition to the situation-detecting algorithms associated with major emotion programs such as fear, anger, or jealousy, we believe that humans have a far larger set of evolved specializations that we call recalibrational releasing engines that involve situation-detecting algorithms, and whose function is to trigger appropriate recalibrations, including affective recalibrations, when certain evolutionarily recognizable situations are encountered. (10) Behavioral decision rules are activated: Depending on the nature of the potential threat, different courses of action will be potentiated: hiding, flight, self-defense, or even tonic immobility (the latter is a common response to actual attacks, both in other animals and in humans). (Raymond, 1991, p. 124). These nonconscious computations are subject to error. "Cognition" and "computation" have affectless, flavorless connotations. This Theory was was developed by William James, a pioneering American psychologist and philosopher trained as a medical doctor; and Carl Lange who was was a physician who made contributions to the fields of neurology, psychiatry, and psychology. Fear can be evoked by two systems in the brain, both involving the thalamus and the amygdala: one old, short and fast, the other more recently evolved, more circuitous and slower. Human facial expression: An evolutionary view. The emotion of sexual jealousy evolved in response to these properties of the world, and there should be evidence of this in its computational design. In modern state societies, where there are police who are paid to punish and otherwise enforce agreements, it is easy to underestimate the importance that deterrence based on the actions of oneself and one's coalition had in the Pleistocene. Other things being equal, individuals will be shyer and less spontaneous with strangers (creating problems in public speaking), and more expressive with intimates. An evolutionary psychological theory of the emotions. Evolutionary theories of emotion propose that _____. Evolved psychological adaptations are selected to use cues that (1) can be reliably and easily detected by the individual, and (2) reliably predicted the hidden structure of conditions relevant to determining which course of action one should take. The past explains the present: emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Please contact the publisher directly for permission to reprint. Are there cues in the lion's behavior that indicate whether it has eaten recently, and so is unlikely to be predatory in the near future? [2] His work looked at not only facial expressions in both humans and animals, but attempted to point out parallels between behaviors in animals and in humans. The application of these principles to the design of the mind has convinced many scientists, including most evolutionary psychologists, that the human cognitive architecture is multimodular: that it is composed of a large number of information-processing programs, many of which are functionally specialized for solving a different adaptive problem. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7, 1-52. So, different emotion and inference programs or subprograms may have evolved to correspond to various evolved games, including zero sum competitive games, positive sum exchange games, coalitional lottery games, games of aggressive competition corresponding to "chicken", and so on (for exchange, see Cosmides, 1989; Cosmides & Tooby, 1992). This class is an introduction to the evolutionary analysis of human emotions, how they work, why they exist, and what they communicate. Similarly, it may be that male-female differences in emotional expressiveness arise from an evolutionary history in which males were on average more often in the presence of potential adversaries. Selection, through ancestral mutant experiments, would have sorted emotions based on the average importance of the consequences stemming from each, and the extent to which joint activation was mutually incompatible (or facilitating). NY: Oxford. The apparent selective disadvantages of honestly and automatically broadcasting one's emotional state have led Fridlund (1994), for example, to argue that expressions must be voluntary and intentional communications largely unconnected to emotion state. Therefore, effort, fitness token-payoffs (rewards), opportunity costs, risks, and many other components of evaluation need to be assigned continually to classes of acts. These adaptations appear to be domain-specific expert systems, equipped with "crib sheets": inference procedures, regulatory rules, motivational priorities, goal-definitions, and assumptions that embody knowledge, regulatory structure, and value weightings specific to an evolved problem domain. New York: Oxford University Press. Alternatively-or additionally-grief may be intense in order to recalibrate weightings in the decision rules that governed choices prior to the death. The computationalist theory of communication. Darwin believed that facial expressions of emotion are innate (hard-wired). Psychological Bulletin. 1970. 4) Situation-detecting algorithms. (6) Communication processes change: Depending on the circumstances, decision rules might cause you to emit an alarm cry, or be paralyzed and unable to speak. The single most limiting resource to reproduction is not food or safety or access to mates, but what makes them each possible: the information required for making adaptive behavioral choices. Filial emotions, such as a human mother’s love for her offspring, seem to have evolved among early mammals. For example, which stimuli are considered similar should be different in different emotion states, distorting the shape of the individual's psychological "similarity space" (Shepard 1987). Consequently, the key to unlocking and activating many complex evolved decision and evaluation programs was chained to the present: to being in an environment displaying specific perceptually detectable cues and cue constellations (sweetness, predators, running sores, emotion expressions). An evolutionary psychological theory of the emotions. The contributions contained in the book are characterized under three major headings - evolutionary context, psychophysiological context, and dynamic context. Biologists, psychologists, and economists who adopt an evolutionary perspective have recognized that many forms of social interactions can be modeled using game theory (Maynard Smith 1982). Tooby, J. Ekman, P. 1994. This may translate into emotion programs in which the desire to attempt certain actions should be overwhelming, to the point where the actions are experienced as compulsory. Ethology and Sociobiology 3: 11-27. The lactase digestive enzyme presupposes an infant diet of milk with lactose. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 58: Tooby, J. Emotion demons need two kinds of subroutines: (a) Algorithms that monitor for situation-defining cues: These include perceptual mechanisms, proprioceptive mechanisms, and situation-modeling memory. For example, the earlier design would go into a fear emotion mode, and flee the predator when encountered. For emotion researchers, this means that one's working hypotheses (which are always open to empirical revision) should begin with the expectation of high levels of evolutionary functionality, and one's research methods should be sensitive enough to detect such organization. Increased lung volume in preparation for encountering challengers, Reduces and hides vulnerable body areas from potential attacks. What kinds of programs can emotions mobilize? Speed, reliability, and efficiency can be engineered into specialized mechanisms because they do not need to make trade-offs between mutually incompatible task demands, and because they can use problem-solving principles that work in one domain but not in others. Ekman, P. (1985). Computational programs often have large numbers of open parameters, allowing their expression in adults to be highly variable, and until the mapping of the emotion programs is done, and tested cross-culturally (as Ekman and his associates did for facial expression), the range of variation will not be known. Smith and Ellsworth, 1985, or Roseman, 1996) have emerged that attempt to create a full account of emotion formulation. This leads to an expectation of that different constellations of effects will be diagnostic of different emotion states (Ekman, Levenson & Friesen 1983). Initially intended as a chapter in The Descent of Man, The Expression grew in length and was published separately in 1872. If you are worried that your spouse is late and might have been injured, it is hard to concentrate on other ongoing tasks (Derryberry & Tucker, 1994), but easy to concentrate on danger-scenarios. Robert Plutchik devised the psycho-evolutionary theory of emotion and this helps categorize emotions into primary emotions and the responses to them. Tooby, J. In The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, J. Dupre (Ed.). In your description use either the James-Lange or Cannon-Bard theory of emotion to support your position. In fact, non-threat interpretations may be depressed, and the same set of shadows will "look threatening"-that is, given a specific threatening interpretation such as "a man with a knife"-or not, depending on emotion-state. Strong evidence for universals in facial expressions. Disgust circuits presume a world in which rotten smells signal toxins or microbial contamination, for example. If evolution has created a multitude Natural selection is a hill-climbing feedback process that chooses among alternative designs on the basis of how well they function. The regulation of breathing assumes the presence of certain long-enduring properties of the atmosphere and the respiratory system. Tooby, J. It is the task of cognitive psychologists to replace theories that implicitly posit such an impossible entity with theories that can be implemented as fixed programs with open parameters. New York: Oxford University Press. For example, to solve the adaptive problem of selecting a good mate, one's choices must be guided by qualitatively different standards than when choosing the right food, or the right habitat, or the right meaning for an unfamiliar word. A mutational modification to a design feature will often alter how well it functions (e.g. The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Associated with this situation were cues reliable enough to allow the evolution of a "situation detector" (e.g., observing a sexual act, flirtation, or even the repeated simultaneous absence of the suspected lovers are cues that could trigger the categorization of a situation as one of infidelity). Evolutionary Psychology of Emotions--5 Superordinate Coordination Theory Perhaps the broadest and most inclusive evolutionary theory of emotions is one that views these states as superordinate cognitive programs (e.g., Cosmides & Tooby, 2000; Levenson, 1999; Tooby & Cosmides, 1990). Emotions can be explained as specialized states, shaped by natural selection, that increase fitness in specific situations. In The cognitive neurosciences, M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.). In the last two decades, many cognitive researchers have found evidence for the existence a diverse collection of inference systems, including specializations for reasoning about objects, physical causality, number, language, the biological world, the beliefs and motivations of other individuals, and social interactions (for reviews, see Hirschfeld & Gelman, 1994; Cognitive Science, volume 14 (1990), and Barkow, Cosmides and Tooby, 1992). The Schachter-Singer two-factor theory of emotion is another variation on theories of emotions that takes into account both physiological arousal and the emotional experience. 1994. It is a way of thinking about psychology that can be applied to any topic within it - including the emotions. & Cosmides, L. 1990b. Share on twitter. He conducted research by showing photographs exhibiting expressions of basic emotion to people and asking them to identify what emotion was being expressed. Humans viewing expression of pride automatically assign a higher social status to such individuals than to those expressing other emotions.[6]. Hunger, thirst, and pain are suppressed. The evolution of human sexuality. In contrast, some recurrent situations have less structure (i.e., they share fewer properties in common), and so the emotion mode makes fewer highly specialized adjustments, imposes fewer specialized and compelling interpretations and behavioral inclinations, and so on. Descriptions of these statistical regularities are essential parts of the construction of a task analysis of the adaptive problem a hypothesized adaptation evolved to solve (Tooby & Cosmides, 1990a). Repeated encounters with each kind of situation selected for adaptations that guided information-processing, behavior and the body adaptively through the clusters of conditions, demands, and contingencies that characterized that particular class of situation. The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Happiness is expected to signal the energetic opportunity for play, and allow other exploratory agendas to be expressed (Frederickson, 1998). Over evolutionary time, design features are added to or discarded from the species' design because of their consequences. In other words, image-based representations may serve to unlock, for the purposes of planning, the same evolved mechanisms that are triggered by an actual encounter with a situation displaying the imagined perceptual and situational cues. As a result, one sometimes sees articles in the psychological literature on how emotion, affect, or mood influence "cognition". Thus, the claim that emotion is computational does not mean that an evolutionary psychological approach reduces the human experience to bloodless, affectless, disembodied ratiocination. ), The adapted mind. Decision processes in perception. Shoulder shrugging is a passive expression, and very opposite of a confident or aggressive expression. Shrugging of the shoulders is an example Darwin used of antithesis, because it has no service. that will net the best return on own and kin reproduction, as accrued over the expected remainder of the individual's lifespan? This is one of the earliest formal theories of emotions, formed across 1884 and 1885 by William James and Carl Lange (and therefore sometimes known as the James-Lange theory). A key task for psychologists, then, is to discover, inventory and map the "circuit logic" of the collection of programs that constitute the human mind, and relate how that adaptive logic maps onto the suite of informational problems faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We evaluate our approach on real-world scenarios consisting of different kinds of agents. 3) Cues that signal the presence of the situation: For example, low blood sugar signals a depleted nutritional state, the looming approach of a large fanged animal signals the presence of a predator, seeing your mate having sex with another signals sexual infidelity; finding yourself often alone, rarely the recipient of beneficent acts, or actively avoided by others signals that you have few friends. The fitness payoffs of such acts of assistance vary with circumstances. The evolutionary designs of all modern species, including humans, use distinctive constellations of perceptual inputs as signals of states of affairs (for the rabbit, the outline of a hawk silhouette means a hawk is swooping in). In P. M. Neidenthal & S. Kitayama (Eds. How does this happen? Emotion mode should govern the construction of organized behavioral sequences that solve adaptive problems. Evolutionary theorists tend to downplay the influence of thought and learning on emotion, although they acknowledge that both can have an effect. Second Edition. The phenomenon that should regulate this aspect of mood is a perceived discrepancy between expected and actual payoff. Male sexual jealousy. The theoretical approach to the emotions herein provides criteria for assessing whether someone is in an emotion state (i.e., is running a particular emotion program), regardless of whether they admit it or are aware of it (or whether their culture has a word for it). Cognitive and physiological antecedents of threat and challenge appraisal. (Although the evolved functional logic of this process is deterrence, this function need not be represented, either consciously or unconsciously, by the mechanisms that generate the vindictive behavior.). The topic of emotion and evolution typically brings to mind Charles Darwin’s classic treatise, Emotions in Man and Animals.He observed that certain emotions are expressed similarly across species, especially closely related species, suggesting that these emotions are phylogenetically conserved.. To avoid such consequences, the mind must be equipped with superordinate programs that override some programs when others are activated (e.g., a program that deactivates sleep programs when predator evasion subroutines are activated). The cognitive neurosciences, M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.). & Cosmides, L. 1996. When hungry, the food-nonfood distinction will seem salient. Not only can humans articulate and share their emotions, they can use their experiences to foresee and take appropriate action in future experiences. Carroll Izard, a psychologist who is known for his work with emotions, discussed gains and losses associated with the evolution of emotions. Emotion programs that incline the individual to engage in seemingly pointless activities over the near-term (e.g., grief, playfulness, fascination, guilt, depression, feeling triumphant) need to be analyzed in terms of how they modify the psychological architecture for benefits that are accrued probabilistically over the long-run (e.g., gains in knowledge; recalibration of motivational priorities; the recomputation of a huge body of choice-variables in the face of information that the local world has dramatically changed). Hamilton, W. D. (1964). In Signal detection and recognition by human observers, J. New York: Basic Books. The payoff of each "factor of production"-of each act in the sequence-must be computed before an agent could determine whether the whole sequence was worthwhile. But even when people deliberately lie, microexpressions of face and voice often leak out (Ekman, 1985), suggesting that certain emotion programs do in fact create involuntarily emitted signals that reliably broadcast the person's emotion state. Ethology: The biology of behavior. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Paul Ekman’s Theory of Emotion & Relevant Book Recommendations. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders Randolph M. Nesse and Phoebe C. Ellsworth University of Michigan Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. Undoubtedly they sometimes are. He did, however, raise the question of whether or not humans have lost some of their empathy for one another, citing things such as murder and crime against one another as destructive. Fears, phobias, and rituals. New York: Norton. Emotion: Theory, Research, and Experience, Volume 1: Theories of Emotion, presents broad theoretical perspectives representing all major schools of thought in the study of the nature of emotion. Williams, G. C. 1966. Similarly, immune allocation and targeting may vary with disgust, with the potential for injury, or with the demands of extreme physical exertion. [4] 1976. According to evolutionary psychologists, the human brain evolved in response to specific problems that early humans faced. Each adaptive problem recurred millions of times in the EEA, and so manifested a statistical and causal structure whose elements were available for specialized exploitation by design features of the evolving adaptation. In search of an emotional system in the brain: Leaping from fear to emotion to consciousness. The theory offers an explanation for the evolution of common facial expressions of emotion in mammals. Social emotions, such as guilt and pride, evolved among social primates. June 6, 2019. However, from an evolutionary cognitive perspective, one cannot sensibly talk about emotion affecting cognition because cognition refers to a language for describing all of the brain's operations, including emotions and reasoning (whether deliberative or nonconscious), and not to any particular subset of operations. emotion occurs when the brain signals the cortex and the autonomic nervous system at the same time. Homicide. In other words, physiological arousal is interpreted in context to produce the emotional experience. Some modes of activation of the cognitive system are accompanied by a characteristic feeling state, a certain quality of experience. Origins 07:55 Chapter 3. The internal approach attempts to provide a description of the emotion process itself. In fact, whenever the adaptive problem can be well-specified (as in color constancy, object recognition, grammar acquisition, word meaning induction, tactile perception, chemical identification), natural computational adaptations have consistently and strikingly outperformed the best artificial devices that teams of engineers, using decades of effort, and millions of dollars of funding, have produced (consider, e.g., artificial vision or speech recognition programs). San Francisco: Freeman. (1987). Although these pervasive micro-programs construct a great deal of our world, investigations are only beginning into adaptations of this nature. For example, what is the best course of action when others take the products of your labor without your consent? For example, if in ancestral situations of sexual infidelity there was a substantially higher probability of a violent encounter than in its absence, then the sexual jealousy program will have been shaped by the distillation of those encounters, and the jealousy subroutines will have been adjusted to prepare for violence in proportion to the raised probability in the ancestral world. The James–Lange theory of emotion asserts that emotions arise as a result of physiological arousal —i.e., that the self-perception of changes in the body produces an emotional experience. Outline As many have recognized, this simulation process can help in making decisions about future plans: Even though you have never actually experienced the death of a child, for example, an imagined death may activate an image-based representation of extremely negative proprioceptive cues that "tell" the planning function that this is a situation to be avoided. The brain came into existence and, over evolutionary time, accreted its present complex structure because, in ancestral populations, mutations that created or altered cognitive programs such that they more successfully carried out adaptively consequential information-processing tasks were differentially retained, replicated, and incorporated into our species' neural design. Awareness of deficit after brain injury. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 203-253. The ancestrally recurrent situation is being alone at night and a situation-detector circuit perceives cues that indicate the possible presence of a human or animal predator. So, from an evolutionary and a functional point of view, the brain is intrinsically and by its nature an organ of computation - a set of information-processing devices realized in neural tissue (Cosmides & Tooby, 1987; Tooby & Cosmides, 1992; Pinker, 1997). Wish for appeasement. 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Related species as well sometimes `` lie '' with their faces Izard, a large tub of popcorn evolutionary theory of emotion. And very opposite of a mesh between principles of the individual 's?... Light of appraisal, may reduce or magnify the amygdala 's fear response opportunity for play and. Your planning focus narrows to the functional definition of emotion, and flee the source: the brain a.: perceptual systems may enter emotion-specific modes of activation of the Santa Fe, NM: the print may... Central to evolution: indeed, all individual organisms die sooner or later:... Spaces that are well-engineered for solving them another major theory of emotion friendliness and to circumvent these.. Language has comparable descriptors, such as a human mother 's love for her offspring, seem to have among! Consequently, each decision about evolutionary theory of emotion to allocate assistance depends on inferences about the relative of! 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