Harappan Civilization. 2. Also Read: History Books for UPSC in Hindi: Get Full Information on Best Books for UPSC in Hindi. Almost every UPSC topper has repeated the importance of reading NCERT school texts. The early Harappan phase from 3300 BC to 2600 BC. (a) How did the early Indian historical tradition, as reflected in Itihasa-Purana, emerge? Which metal was not known to the Harappan people? A. They painted such animal motifs such as humped bulls on thin pottery. Of them, 406 are located in Pakistan and 616 in India. Early Harappan Sites :- This geographical space would roughly cover the areas of modern-day Rajasthan, Punjab, Gujarat, Pakistan and some of the surrounding areas. Amri is the type-site of this early cultural assemblage. The Harappan culture seems to have flourished until 1900 BC. Ans D. Iron. What are the distinctive features of this genre? C. Silver. The present year is 2007 according to this dating system. D. Banwali. Q4. Ropar is a Harappan site from where remains of pre-Harappan and Harappan cultures have been found, Buildings at Ropar were made mainly of stone and soil. While the Indus Valley Civilisation was divided into Early, Mature and Late Harappan by archaeologists like Mortimer Wheeler, newer periodisations include the Neolithic early farming settlements, and use a Stage-Phase model, often combining terminology from various systems. Dockyard, Terracotta figurine of a horse, fire altars, double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave), and painted jar were found here. Different Harappan sites and their significance. Discovered by J.P Joshi/Rabindra Singh (1990) 3 parts + large open area for ceremonies; Large letters of the Harappan script (signboards). Phase II shows an increasing component of Harappan materials alongside the Amrian. It was believed to be a hub of art and culture and architecture. Explanation: After analysing the cultures of early archaeological sites with the Harappan site, it appears that there was a break between the Early Harappan and Harappan Civilisation which is evident from the findings of large-scale burning sites and the abandonment of certain settlements. The late Harappan phase from 1900 BC to 1300 BC. • The structures are outlined by two or three courses of mud brick with post-holes at intervals. At which Harappan site traces of a horse have been found? These are texts which help to build the fundamentals. Introduction. Let us learn about this very important part of our history GENERAL STUDIES FOR ALL UPSC/PSC EXAMS Headline Animator ↑ Grab this Headline Animator All Categories Books Mobiles & Accessories Computers Cameras Games & Consoles Music, Movies & Posters Home Audio & MP3 Players Belts, Bags & Luggage Home & Kitchen TVs & Video Players Pens & Stationery In this article, we will be dealing with the important points filtered out from NCERT school text for Standard 6 History. They had constructed some kind of granary too. 1. The Early Harappan Phase is related to the Hakra Phase, identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley. 9. NCERT texts are a must read for every UPSC aspirant and are available for free download from ncert.nic.in website. Note : Traces of camel found in Kalibangal. The Mature Harappan Phase from 2600 to 1900 BCE. Artefacts of Kushana period:- Pottery, terracotta figurines, bone arrow heads, iron daggers… Harappan and Late Harappan site. The mature Harappan phase from 2600 BC to 1900 BC. —->Early Harappan 3000–2600 BCE —->Mature Harappan 2600–1900 BCE —->Late Harappan 1900–1700 BCE The urban phase was prevalent in the mature Harappan period and began to decline afterwards. BRW, red ware and grey ware. Several periodisations are employed for the periodisation of the Indus Valley Civilisation. After reading this Unit you should be able to : understand that there was continuity of population and material traditions between the Early Harappan and Harappan Civilization. 7. Ancient, Medieval and Modern. D. Iron. Northern most Harappan site. Banawali Banawali was excavated by Daya Ram Sahni in 1921-1923. Period 2: Kot Diji Phase (Early Harappan, incipient urbanization, ca 25 hectares), 2800–2600 BCE; Period 1: pre-Harappan Ravi aspect of the Hakra phase, 3800–2800 BCE; The earliest Indus phase occupation at Harappa is called the Ravi aspect, when people first lived at least as early as 3800 BCE. The Indus valley site of Harappa was first visited by Charles Mason in … excavations at Lothal reveal this stage of evolution. Harappan Sites (i) Manda/ Akhnoor In Akhnoor district, J&K on the bank of Chenab. The site is especially important for providing evidences about different Harappan factories. Some people call Indus Valley people as Proto-Dravidians, who might have been pushed to south in mature Harappan phase when Aryans, with their advanced military skills commenced their migration around 2000BC. It was the only Harappan city without a citadel. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a bronze-age civilization. Located in Khadir Beyt, Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. Previous Year Prelims Exam Questions on Ancient Indian History. The early Harappan phase was located near Ravi River and lasted between C 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE. Early Harappan stage : People lived in large villages in the plains; There was a gradual growth of towns in the Indus Valley; Also, the transition from rural to urban life took place during this period; The sites of Amri and Kot Diji remain the evidence for early Harappan stage . The biggest site in India, until the discovery of Rakhigarhi. BP stands for Before Present BCE stands for Before Common Era CE stands for the Common Era. After reading this Unit you should be able to : understand that there was continuity of population and material traditions between the Early Harappan and Harappan Civilization. It arose in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Mature Harappan stage : Great cities emerged. Bronze. – focus on the religious, social, and cultural aspects. It was a coastal town. It describes the main sites of Harappan Civilization as well as the material remains which characterised these sites. In this era. Harappa was the first site of the civilization to be excavated in 1921. 6. sites of Amri and Kot Diji remain the evidence for early-Harappan stage; mature-Harappan stage, great cities emerged excavations at Kalibangan with its elaborate town planning and urban features prove this phase of evolution. Some of the designs such as fish scales, pipal leaves, and intersecting circles have their roots in the early Harappan phase. The earliest examples of the Indus script date back to 3000 BC. Ropar = Sutlej. It is associated with Hakra Phase, which is founded in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley, named after a site Sindh in Pakistan near Mohenjodaro. Basic knowledge of Vedic society, family, marriage, norms, etc. Post-Urban Phase. 3. Name. The Late Harappan Phase from 1900 to 1300 BCE. There were popular trade networks which linked this culture to the regional culture. 20. late-Harappan stage, the decline of the Indus culture started. Phases of Indus Valley Civilization. Mature and Late Harappan. B. Surkotda. Some traits of post-urban Harappan culture are to be found in Pakistan, and in central and western India, in Punjab, Rajasthan, … It describes the main sites of Harappan Civilization as well as the material remains which characterised these sites. The excavation team was led by Daya Ram Sahni. Artifacts excavated from these sites that denote their art, culture, and script used during this period. Indus Valley Sites Harappa. Download Indus Valley Civilization notes PDF. Harappa was a gateway city and a meeting point of several routes. The discoveries made at these architectural sights give us great insight into the lives & lifestyles of our ancestors. Period III belongs to the Harappan, giving evidence of early, transitional, and late sub-phases, into a final 'Jhukar' sub-phase. This Harappan site is located on the bank of Cambay in Ahmadabad, Gujarat. Harappan civilization is one of the most ancient civilizations of the world. Of these, early and post-urban Harappan sites account for over half the total number. In UPSC IAS Prelims Exam, History is one of the crucial subjects and it consists of three sections of the History i.e. Kot Dijian (Early Harappan) phase Circa 2800-2600 BC Harappan Phase Circa 2600-1900 BC Transitional Phase Circa 1900-1800 BC Late Harappan Phase Circa 1800-1300 BC Important Findings . (xii) Early Harappan site (xiii) An ancient temple (xiv) Political and Cultural centre (xv) An ancient sea port (xvi) Buddhist centre (xvii) Inscriptional site (xviii) An ancient capital (xix) A Jaina centre (xx) An ancient capital. Early Harappan 52 37 sites Mature 65 136 Harappan sites Mature Harappan 43 132 settlements on new sites Early Harappan 29 33 sites abandoned You will find certain abbreviations, related to dates, in this book. Features of Indus Valley Civilization Urbanization & Town Planning. Artefacts: Bangles, potshards with Harappan writings and bone arrow heads. Ropar is a Harappan site from where remains of pre-Harappan and Harappan cultures have been found. The transition from Early harappan to Mature harappan is best seen at Amri where at the beginning of the 3rd Millenium BC a distinctive culture complex to the south east of baluchistan appeared. The Harappan civilization represents the culmination of a long period of evolution of agricultural and semi-nomadic communities. Read more about Indus Valley Civilization, town planning in IVC and other IVC facts for IAS Exam. Copper. The Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus river system in whose alluvial plains the early sites of the civilisation were identified and excavated. Known as Harappan Civilisation, it existed between 3300 BC to 1900 BC. The important findings at the site include pottery, ornaments, copper axes, chert blades, terracotta blades, one inscribed steatite seal with typical Indus pictographs, several burials interred in oval pits and a rectangular mud brick chamber. • Among the explored Harappan sites of the Saraswati—Drishadvati valley, Rakhigarhi seems to be the largest. Ans B. Surkotda. ; It is called Harappan because this civilization was discovered first in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan. Mature Harappan settlements number 1022. 2. In May 2012, the Global Heritage Fund, declared Rakhigarhi one of the 10 most endangered heritage sites in Asia. Here people lived in stone houses or mud brick houses. The Early Harappan Phase from 3300 to 2600 BCE. The potteries were used for following purposes: Plain pottery was used for household purposes, mainly storage of grains and water. Human figures are rare. The signs of a gradual decline of the Indus River Valley Civilization are believed to have started around 1800 BC and by 1700 BC, most of the cities were abandoned. The material … These factories produced seals, toys and bone implements. Geographical Feature of Harappan Sites :- Previously, Archiologists believed that Early Harappan civilization phase begin from 3500 BCE; But new sites from Haryana are as old as 5000 BECAUSE (Farmana, Girawad and Mitathal) Now Expert think that Harppan civilization originated from Ghagagar basin in Haryana and then spread towards Indus Valley civilization in Western India and Pakistan. A. Dholavira. It is a 5,000-year-old site that showcases continuity from the Harappan age to the present times. 2. In this phase, houses were of mud-brick. The village also has havelis that are a couple of hundred years old. Check the important questions of UPSC IAS Prelims 2021 from the Ancient & Medieval History section. Polychrome pottery have also been found, though very rare. THE INDUS or the Harappan culture is older than the chalcolithic cultures which have been treated earlier, but it is far more developed than these cultures. B. • The discovery of circular structures at the entrance of the valley, a unique feature of early Harappan days, has also been reported. Questions on Ancient History in 2020 Prelims – With reference to the period of the Gupta dynasty in ancient India, the towns Ghantasala, Kadura, and Chaul were well known as For UPSC … C. Harappa. Pottery, copper and bronze fragments were also recovered. The Lothal site was excavated by S R Rao in 1957. The site is located in the Sarasvati river plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar river. Cambay in Ahmadabad, Gujarat K on the bank of Cambay in Ahmadabad, Gujarat Harappan site where... India, until the discovery of Rakhigarhi early and post-urban Harappan sites of Harappan Civilization well... 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